JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 & Exam Pattern PDF Download: Searching for the PDF’s of the JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022? No more worries, all detailed information related to the JSSC Lab Assistant Exam Pattern 2022 and the Jharkhand Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 are projected here in this article. Refer to the subject wise Jharkhand SSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 Topics available in the following sections and also download the JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 PDF by giving a click on the link. Scroll down this article for more details.
There are 2 Papers in the Examination. Paper I consists of 100 Questions from the subjects Hindi, General Studies, General Science, Knowledge of Jharkhand State, Valued Computer Knowledge, Mental Ability Test. 1 mark will be awarded for each question. Paper II consists of 150 Questions from the subject knowledge i,e., Physics, Chemistry, Zoology, Botany. 2 Marks will be awarded for each question that makes total marks as 300. The Time duration of the exam is 3 Hours.
- 1 JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 – Overview
- 2 JSSC Lab Assistant Exam Pattern 2022
- 3 Download JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 PDF
JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 – Overview
|JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 & Exam Pattern|
|Organization Name||Jharkhand Staff Selection Commission (JSSC)|
|Name of the Exam||Jharkhand Laboratory Assistant Competitive Examination (JLACE) -2022|
|Post Name||Lab Assistant|
|Selection Process||Computer-Based Test (CBT), and Main Exam|
JSSC Lab Assistant Exam Pattern 2022
The JSSC Lab Assistant Exam Pattern 2022 is given in detail in a tabular form. Interested candidates must have a look into the details which will help in gaining complete knowledge on all the subjects involve in the exam. Hence, it ultimately helps in making good scores, assist you in time management during the exam. Along with the JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 PDF, we have attached the JSSC Lab Assistant Exam Pattern 2022 PDF at the end section.
|Name of the Subjects||Total Question||Total Marks|
|Paper I (Test of General Knowledge and Hindi Language)|
|Paper II (Examination of the Concerned Subject)|
|Examination of the subject in which the appointment is to be made||150||300|
|Total||250 Questions||400 Marks|
|Time Duration: 3 Hours|
Download JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 PDF
Check out the subject wise JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 topics from the below sections. Note down all the important topics and start your practice. Accordingly, make use of the JSSC Lab Assistant Syllabus 2022 PDF attached at the end section. Also, the JSSC Lab Assistant Exam Pattern 2022 PDF is made available for the sake of the exam appearing candidates.
The objective of the questions in this part will be to test the general knowledge of the candidate and his/ her aptitude in relation to their application in the society. Knowledge of matters like current events and day-to-day events with a nuanced observation and scientific attitude towards them which is expected of any educated person. In this, as many questions as possible can be asked, especially with respect to Jharkhand, India and neighboring countries. Current Affairs, Scientific Progress, National / International Awards, Indian Languages, Books, Script, Capital, Currency, Sports, Important Events. History of India, culture, geography, environment, economic scenario, independence movement, salient features of Indian agriculture and natural resources and constitution and polity of India, political system of the country, Panchayati Raj, community development, five year plan.
General information about the geographical location and political situation of the state of Jharkhand.
The questions of General Science will have questions related to general understanding and understanding of science based on day-to-day observation and experience. As is expected of a well educated person who has not made any special study of any science subject.
Mental Ability Test
There will be both verbal and non-verbal type questions. In this component as many questions as possible related to the following can be asked. Analogy, Similarities and Differences, Space Visualization, Problem Solving, Analysis, Visual Memory, Differentiation, Observation, Relationship Concept, Numerical Reasoning, Numerology, Number Series and Code Writing and Code Interpretation etc.
Knowledge Related to Jharkhand State
Geography, History, Civilization, Culture, Language-Literature, Location, Mines, Minerals, Industry, Contribution of Jharkhand in the National Movement, Development Plans, Sports Players, Personality, Civil Achievements, Topics of National and International Importance etc.
Valued Computer Knowledge
- Various computer equipments
- MS Windows operating system
- MS questions related to information about the method of office and internet operation can be asked.
- Mechanics, Thermal Physics and Waves and Oscillation
- Mechanics: Conservation Laws, Collisions, impact parameter, scattering cross section, centre of mass and lab systems with transformation of physical quantities, Rutherford Scattering. Motion of a rocket under constant force field. Rotating frames of reference, Coriolis force, Motion of rigid bodies. Angular momentum, Torque and procession of a top, Gyroscope, Central forces, Motion under inverse square law. Kepler’s Laws, Motion of Satellites (including geostationary). Galilean Relativity, Special Theory of Relativity, Michelson-Morley Experiment, Lorentz Transformations addition theorem of velocities, Variation of mass with velocity, Mass-Energy equivalence. Fluid dynamics, streamlines, turbulence, Bernoullis Equation with simple applications.
- Thermal Physics: Laws of thermodynamics, Entropy, Carnot’s cycle, Isothermal and
Adiabatic Changes, Thermodynamic Potentials Maxwell’s relations. The Clausius Clapeyren equation reversible cell, Joule-Kelvin effect etc. Fan Boltazmann Law, Kinetic Theory of Gases, Maxwell’s Distribution Law of velocities, Equipartition of energy, Specific heats of gases. Mean Free path, Brownian Motion. Black Body radiation, specific heat of solid-Einstean & Dbye theories, Wein’s Law, Planck’s Law, Solar Constant. Thermalionization and Stellar spectra-production of law temperatures using adiabatic demagnetization and dilution refrigeration, Concept of negative temperature.
- Waves and Oscillations: Oscillations, Simple harmonic motion, stationary and travelling waves, Damped harmonic motion, Forced oscillation & Resonance. Wave equation, Harmonic Solutions, Plane and Spherical waves, Superposition of waves, Phase and Group velocities, Beats. Huygen’s principle, Interference. Differaction-Fresnee and Fraunhofer. Diffraction by straight edge, Single and multiple slits. Resolving power of grating and Optical Istiments. Ravleigh Criterion.
- Polarization; Production and Detection of polarized light (linera, circular and elliptical). Laser sources (Helium-Neon, Ruby and semiconductor diode). Concept of spatial and temporal coherence. Diffraction as a Fourier transformation. Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction by rectangular and circular apertures, Holography; theory and applications.
- Electricity & Magnetism, Modern Physics and Electronics Electricity & Magnetism: Coulmb’s Law, Electric field, Gauss’s law, Electric potential, Possion and Laplace equations for a homogeneous dielectric, uncharged conducting Plane. Magnetic Shell
Magnetic induction and field strength. Blot Savart law and applications.
- Electromagnetic induction, Faraday’s Lenz’s laws, Self and mutual inductances. Alternating currents, L.C.R. circuits series and parallel resonance circuits, quality factor. Kirchoff’s laws with application. Maxwell’s equations and electromagnetic waves, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Poynting vector, magnetic fields in matter- dia, para, ferro antiferro and ferri magnetism (qualitative approach only).
- Modern Physics: Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom. Electron spin, Optical and X ray Spectra. Stern-Gerlach experiment and spatial quantization. Vector model of the
atom, spectral terms, fine structure of spectral lines. J-J and L-S coupling, Zeeman effect, Paull’s exclusion principle, spectral terms of two equivalent and non equivalent electrons, Gross and fine structure of electronic band Spectra. Raman effect Photoelectric effect. Compton effect, debroglie waves. Wave particle duality and uncertainty principle.
- Schrodinger wave equation with application to (i) particle in a box, (ii) motion across a step potential, One dimensional harmonic oscillator eigen values and eigen functions. Uncertainty Principle Radio activity, Alpha, Beta and Gamma radiations. Elementary theory of the alpha decay. Nuclear binding energy. Mass Spectroscopy, Semi empirical mass formula. Nuclear fission and fusion. Elementary Reactor physics. Elementary particles and their classification. Strong and
- Weak Electromagnetic interactions. Particle accelerators: Cyclotron. Leniar accelerations, Elementary ideas of Superconductivity. Electronics: Band theory of Solids- conductors, insulators and semiconductors, Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. P-N junction, Thermist Zenner diodes and transistors for rectification, amplification, oscillation modulation and detection of r.f. waves. Transistor receiver. Televtion Logic Gates.
- Atomic structure, Periodic properties and chemical bonding — Idea of de Broglie matter waves, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, atomic orbitals, Schrodinger wave equation, significance of Ψ and Ψ2, quantum numbers, radial and angular wave functions and probability distribution curves, shapes of S, p, and d orbitals, Aufbau and Pauli’s exclusion principles, Hund’s rule, electronic configuration classification of elements as s, p, d and f-blocks. Periodic tables and periodic properties (atomic and ionic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, electro-negativity) and their trends in periodic table,
Their applications in chemical bonding.
- Covalen bonding. V.B. Theory, VSEPR Theory, M O. Theory, homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules, bond order and magnetic properties. Resonance, hydrogen bonds and vimder Waals forces. Ionic solids – BornHaber cycle, Fajaris rule.
- 2. Gaseous states — Postulates of kinetic theory of gases, deviation from ideal behavior of van der Waal’s equation of state. Critical temperature, pressure and volume. Liquification of gases, Critical constants and vander Waals constants, the law of corresponding states, reduced equation of state Molecular velocities — r:m.s. velocity, average velocity, most probable velocity. Maxwell’s distribution of molecular velocities.
- 3. Solid State — Space lattice, Unit cell. Laws of crystallography. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Bragg’s equation coordination number radius ratio rule, detects in crystals and their magnetic and electric behavior semi-conductors and super conductors
- 4. Thermodynamics — Law of thermodynamics, work, heat, energy. State functions — E, H, S and G and their significance criteria for chemical equilibrium and spontaneity of reactions. Variations of free energy with T, P and V Gibbs Helmhotts equation. Entropy changes in gases for reversible and irreversible processes. Hess law Bond energy.
- 5. Chemical kinetics and catalysis — Order and molecularity, chemical kinetics and its scope, rate of a reaction, factors influencing rate of reaction. Rate equations of zero, first and second order reactions. Pseudo order, half life and mean life. Determination of order of reactions. Theories of chemical kinetics — collision theory, transition state theory, Arrhenius equation, concept of activation energy, effect of temperature on rate constant.
Catalysis, characteristics of catalysed reactions, theories of catalysis, examples.
- 6. Electrochemistry — Electronic conduction in electrolytic solutions, specific, equivalents and molar conductance, effect of dilution on them, cell constant, experimental method of determining conductance. Migration of ions and Kohlrausch, law. Arrhenius theory of electorlytic dissociation and its limitations, weak and strong electrolytes Ostwald’s dilution law, its uses and limitations Debye – Huckel Onsager’s equation (elementary
treatment) Transport number – definition, determination by Hittor method. Galvanic cells, electrodes and electrode reactions, Nernst equation, E.M.F. of cells, Hydrogen electrode, electrochemical series, concentration cell and their applications pH. Buffer solutions theory of buffer action,
- 7. Transition and inner transition metals and complexes — General characteristics of d-block elements, co-ordination components – nomenclature, isomerism and bonding in complexes V.B. theory and crystal field theory. Werners theory, eAN metal carbonyls, cyclopentadienys, olefin and acetylene complexes. Compounds with metal-metal bonds and metal atom clusters. General chemistry of f-block elements Lanthanides and actinides – ionic radic, separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties.
- 8. Non-aqueous solvents — Physical properties of a solvent, types of solvents and their general characteristics, reactions in non-aqueous solvents with reference to liqued NH3 and liquid SO2.
- 9. Photochemistry — Interaction of radiation with matter, difference between thermal and photochemical processes. Lawa of photochemistry — Grothus Drapper law, stark-Einstein law, Jablonski diagram. Fluerescence. phosphorescence, Quantum yield Photoelectric cells.
- 10. Hard and soft arids and bases — Classification of acids and bases as hard and soft, Pearson’s HSAB concept, acid-base strength and hardness and softness, symbiosis, theoretical basis of hardness and softness, symbiosis, theoretical basis of hardness and softness, electronegativity and hardness and softness.
- 11. Structure and Binding — Hybridization, bond lengths and bind angles bond energy, localized and delocalized chemical bond, van der Waals interactions, inclusion compounds, clatherates, charge transfer complexes, resonance, hyperunjugation, aromaticity, inductive and field effects, hydrogen bonding.
- 12. Mechanism of organic reactions — Homolytic and heterolytic bond breaking, types of reagents – carbocations. and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions, Reactive intermediates – Carbocations, carbanions, free radicals, carhbenes,arynes and nitrenes (with examples) Different types of addition, substitution and elimination reactions – SN1
, SN2 , SNi , E1, E2, E1cb etc.
- 13. Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds — Isomerism, Optical isomerism – elements of symmetry, molecular chirality, enantiomers, stereogenic centre, optical activity properties of enantiomers, chiral and achiral moleculers with tar stereogenic centres, diastereomers. threo and erythro diastereomers, meso compounds, resolution of enantiomers. inversion, retention and racemizarion. Relative and absolute configuration requence rule, D & L and R & S nomenclature.
- Geometric isomerism: Determination of configuration of geometric isomers – E & Z nomenclature, geometric isomerism ot oximes and alecyclic compounds. Configuration and confurmation, conformations of ethane, butane and cyclohexane.
- 14. Organometallic Compounds — Organometallic compounds of Mg. Li & Zn their formation, preparation, structure and systhetic applications.
- 15. Organic Synthesis via enolates — Acidity of α-llydrogens, preparation, properties and synthetic applications of diethyl malonate and eithyl acctoacetate, keto-enol tautomeins.
- 16. Carbohydrates — Classification and nomenclature Monosacharides, mechanism of asazone formation, interconversion of glucose and fructose, chain lengthening and chain shortening of aldoses and ketoses, Anomers and epimers Formation of glycosides, ethers and esters Ring structure of glucose and fructose mechanism of mutarotation.
- 17. Polymers — Addition or chain growth polymerization. Free radical vingt polymerization, ionic vingl polymerizations, Ziegler – Natta polymerization and vinigl polymers. Condensation or step-growth polymerization, Polyesters, polyamider, phenol-formaldelyde resins, urea-formaldelyde resins, epoxy.resins and polyurethanes.
Natural and synthetic rubbers. Inorganic polymeric systems – silicones and phosphazenes, nature of bonding in triphosphazenes
- 18. Study of following types of organic compounds: a. Alkanes and cycloalkanes — Preparation of alkanes – wartz reactions Kolbe reaction, Corey – House reaction etc physical and chemical properties, freeradical halogenation of alkanes – reactivity and selectivity. Cycloalkanes : Nomenclature, formation, properties – Baeger’s strain theory
- b. Alkenes, cyclocalkenes, Diencs & Alkynes — Mechanism of dehydration of alcohols, and delydrogenation of alkyl halides, regioselectivity in alcohol dehydration. The saytzeff rule, Hofmanu elimination Mechanisn involved in hydrogenation, electrophilic and free radical additions, markownikoffs rule, kharasch effect, hydroboration – oxidation, oxymercuration – reduction, Epoxidation, Ozonolysis, hydration, hydroxyltion and oxidation with KMnOu. Polymenization.
- Substitution at the allylic and vinylic positions of alkenes. Uses Dienes: Classificatin, preparation, properties Alkyness : Preparation, properties, acidic reactions of alkynes, mechanism of electrophilic and nucleophilic addition reactions, hydroboration – oxidation, metal-ammonia reductins, oxidation and polymerization.
- c. Arenes and Aromaticity — Aromaticity : The Huckel rule, arematic ions, M.O. diagram, anti-aromatic, Aromatic electrophilic substitution — Mechanism, role of σ and π complexes. Mechanism of nitration, halogenters sulphonation, mercuration and Friedel Crafts reaction. Energy profile diagram, activating and deactivating substituents, orientation, ortho-para ratio. Side-chain reactions of benzene derivatives. Birch reduction.
- 19. Study of some reactions — Pinacol – pinacotone rearrangement, aldol reaction, perkin reaction. Cannizzaro’s reaction, Mannich reaction, Clemmensen reduction, claisen rearrangement, Peimer Tiemann reaction, Friedel crafts reaction, Fries rearrangement. Reformatsky reaction.
- 20. Spectroscopy — Basic principles of the following type of spectroscopy and their applications in determining structures.
a. UV – Visible spectroscopy
b. IR – ”
c. NMR – ”
d. Mass – ”
e. ESR – “(cemplexes)
- A general survey, Classification and relationship of the various phyla.
- Protozoa: Study of the structure, bionomica and life history of paramaecium,Monocyotis, malarial parasite, Trypanosoma and Leishmania. Locomotion, nutrition and reproduction in protozoa.
- Porifera : Canal system, skeleton and reproduction.
- Coelenterata: Structure and life history of Obelia and Aurelia, polymorphism in hydrozoa, coral formation, metagenesis, phylogenetic relationship fo Cinidaria & Acnidaria.
- Helminths: Structure and life history of planaria, Fasciola, Taenia & Ascaris. Parastic adaptation, Helminths in relation to man.
- Anneliada : Nereis, earthworm and leech: coelom & metamerism: modes of life in
- Arthopoda: Palemon Scorpion, Cockroach, larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea, mouth part vision and respiration in arthropods, social life and metamorphosis in insects. Importance of peripatus.
- Mollusea, unio Pila, Oyster culture and pearl formation, cephalopods, Torsion and
Detorsion in Gastropada.
- Echinodermata: General organization, larval forms and affinities of Echinodermata. General organization and characters, outline classification and inter-relationship of protochordata, pisces, Amphibia, Reptillia, Aves and mammalia.
- Neoteny and retrogressive metamorphosis.
- A general study of comparative account of the various systems of vertebrates.
- Pisces : Locomotion, migration and respiration in fishes: structure and affinities
- Ambhibia: Origin o Amphibia; distribution, anatomical peculiarities and affinities of urodela and Apoda parental Care.
- Reptiles: Origin of Reptiles; adaptise radiation in reptiles. Fossil reptiles; poisonous & non poisonous snakes of India; poison apparatus of snake.
- Aves: Origin of birds; flightless birds; aerial adaptation and migration of birds. Origin of mammals; homologies of ear ossicles in mammals; dentition and phylogenetic relations of protothria and Mehtatheria. Endicrine glands (Pituitary, thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancresa, Gonads). Comparative anatomy of various system of vertebrates (Integument, Heart, Aortic, Arches, Kidney, Brain)
- Environment : Abiotic factors and their role; Biotic factors – Intra and inter-specific relations. Biogeochemical Cycles, green house effect, ozone depletion, Eco logical succession, Biomes ecotones.
- Animal : Organisation at population and community levels, ecological successions.
- Ecosystem: Concept, components, fundamental operation, energy flow, biogeochemical cycles food chain and tophic levels. Adaptation in fresh water, marine and terrestrial habitats.
- Pollution in air, water and land.
- Wild life in India and its conservation.
- Sustainable production in agriculture, Integrated Pest manager.
- EhologyGeneral survey of various types of animal behaviour.
- Role of harmones and pheromones in behavior.
- Biological clock, seasonal rhythms, tidal, seasonal and circadian rhythm.
- Neuro-endocrine control of behaviour.
- Methods of studying animals behaviour.
- BiostatisticsMethods of sampling, frequency distribution and measures of central tendency.
- Standard deviation, standard error and standard deviance, correction and regression
and chi-square and f-test, student t-test.
- Economics ZoologyParasitism, commensalism & host parasite relationship.
- Parasitic protozoans, helminthis and insects of man and domestic animals.
- Insect pests of crops and stored products.
- Benefical insects.
- Pisciculture and induced breeding, Apiculture, sericulture, Lac culture, pearl culture, prawn culture.
- Cell Biology Genetics, Evolution & Systematics.
- Cell Biology- Structure and function of cell and cytoplasmic constituents; structure of nucleus, Plasma membrane, mitochondria golgibodies, endo-plasmic reticulum and ribosomes, cell division; mitotic spindle and chromosome movements and meiosis.
Genetics- Gene structure and function; Watson- Crick model of DNA, replication of
DNA Genetic code; protein synthesis cell differentiation; sexchomosomes and sex
- Mendelian laws of inheritance recombinations, linkage and linkage maps, multiple, allels; mutation (natural and induced), mutation and evolution, meiosis, chromosome number and from, structural rearrangements; polyploidy; cytoplasmic inheritance, regulation of gene expression in Prokaryotes and eukaryotes; biochemical genetics, elements of human genetics; normal and abnormal karyotypes; genes and diseases. Eugenics, DNA- finger printing.
- Evolution and Systematic- Origin of life, history of evolutionary thought Lamarck
and his works. Darwin and his works, sources and nature of organic variation, Natural selection, hardy-weinberg law, cryptic and warning colouration mimicry; Isolation
mechanisms and their role. Insular fauna. Concept of species and sub- species, principles of classification, phylogeny of horse, elephant, camel, origin and evolution of man, principles and theories of continental distribution of animals, zoogeographical
realms of the world.
- Bio-Chemistry, Physiology and Embryology- Biochemistry: Structure of carbohydrates, lipids, aminoacids, proteins, and nueleic acids, glycolysis and krebs cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation, energy conservation and release, ATP, cyclic AMP, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, streroid, hormones; Types of enzymes, mechanism of enzyme action, immunoglobulius and immunity, vitamins and coenzymes; Hormone, their classification, biosynthesis & functions.
- Physiology with special reference to mammals; composition of blood, blood groups in man coagulation, oxygen and carbondioxide transport, hemoglobin, breathing and its regulation; nephron and urine formation, acid-base balance and homeostasis, temperature regulation in man, mechanism of conduction along axon and across synapes, neurotransmitters, vision, hearing and other receptors; types of muscles, ultra structures and mechanism of contraction of skeltal, muscle; role of salivary gland, liver, pancreas, and intestinal glands, indigestion, absorption of degested food, nutrition and balanced diot of man mechanism of action of steroid and peptide hormones, role of hypo-thalamus, pituitary thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, testis, ovary and pineal organs and their inter-relationships, physiology of reproduction in humans, hormonal control of development in man and insects, pheromones in insects.
- Embryology: Gametogenesis, fertilization, types of eggs, cleavage, development upto gastrulating in branchiostoma, frog and chick; Fate maps of frog and chick; Metamorphosis in frog; Formation and fate of extra embryonic membranes in chick; Types of placenta in mammals, function of placenta in mammals; organisers. Regeneration, genetic control of development. Organogenesis of central nervous system, sense organs heart and kidney of vertebrate embryos. Aging and its implication in relation to man. Invastiveness of polacenta, in vitro fertilization, embryo transfer, cloning.
- 1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Viruses, bacteria, Plasmids: Structure and reproduction. General account of infection, phytoimmunology. Application of microbes in agriculture, industry, medicine and pollution control in air, soil and water. Important plant diseases in India with special reference to Jharkhand State caused by virus, bacteria, mycoplasma and fungi. Mode of infection and dissemination. Physiology of parasitism and methods of control. Myco-toxin.
- 2. Cryptogams: Range of structure and reproduction, and evolutionary aspects. Ecology and economic importance of algae, fungi bryophytes and pteridophytes.
- 3. Phanerogams: Anatomy: meristem and secondary growth. Embryology: Microand megasporogenesis, fertilization, endosperm, apomixis and polyembryony. Palynology and its application. Comparison of the system of classification of angiosperms. Modern trends in bio- systematics. Taxonomic and economic importance of cycadaceae, Pinaceae, Gnetaceae, Magnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceaae, Rosaceaae, Leguminosae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Umbelliferae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae (Palmae) Liliaceae, Musaceaae and Orchidaceae.
- 4. Plant utility and Exploitation: Origin of cultivated plants. Study of plant as a source of food, fodder, forage, fatty oils, wood and timber, fibre, paper, rubber, beverage, alcohol, drugs, narcotics, resin and gums, essential oils, dyes, mucilage, insecticides and pesticides, plant indicators, ornamentation; and energy plantation with special knowledge about the conservation of forests of Jharkhand.
- 5. Morphogenesis: Polarity, symmetry, Plant tissue culture technique, differentiation and dedifferentiation of cells and organs, totipotency. Factors of morphogenesis. Protoplast culture and somatic hybridization. Applications of protoplast cell, tissue and organ culture.
- 1. Cell Biology: General knowledge of modern tools and techniques in the study of cytology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell-ultra-structure details. Function of the organelles including membranes. Detailed studies of cell division-Mitosis and Meiosis. Numerical and structural variation in chromosomes and its significance. Study of polytene and lampbrush chromosome-structure, behaviour, cytological significance.
- 2. Genetics and Evolution: Development of genetics, gene concept. Mendelism, post- mendelian development, Structure and role of nucleic acids. Genetic code and regulation of gene expression. Mutation and evolution, Polyploidy and its role in evolution and plant breeding. Multiple factors, linkage and crossing over, Gene mapping, Sex chromosome and sex-linked inheritance. Male Sterility, its significance in plant breeding. Cytoplasmic inheritance, Elements of human genetics. Transgenesis, genetic engineering, organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories. Plant genetic resources and their conservation.
- 3. Physiology and Biochemistry: Detailed studies of plant, soil, and water relations. Mineral nutrition and ion transport. Mineral deficiences. Photosynthesis. mechanism and importance. Photosystem I and II, photorespiration. Respiration and fermentation. Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Protein synthesis. Enzymes, importance of secondary metabolites.
- Phytochromes. Physiology of flowering. Growth substances, their chemical nature and application in agriculture and horticulture. Agrochemicals. Stress physiology, dormancy, storage and germination of seeds.
- Ecology: Ecological factors, concepts and dynamics of community. Plant succession. Concept of biosphere, Conservation of ecosystem. Pollution and its control. Forest types of India. Afforestation, deforestation, social forestry, and endagered endemic plant with special reference to Jharkhand
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